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Situating at the western coast of South East Asia Peninsula, Union of Myanmar lays between Indian sub-continent and Indochina. Total land area is 677,000 sq.km. with 2051 km. of longitudinal stretch from Tibetan Height to Andaman Sea and 936 km. at its widest points. Except for the centrally located Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) valley and delta, the terrain is mountainous. Alternating monsoon wind of Indian Ocean and polar wind of Mongolian Height determine a fair and established tropical climate. Central plain use to get the annual rainfall as low as 40 inches while at Rakhine coastal strip it collects 200 inches. Consequently, a rich diversity of flora and fauna thrive. It is home to about 300 known mammal species, 300 reptile species and 100 bird species. And there are about 7000 species of plant life.

Material evidences indicate the Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures had flourished. One such evidence is wall paintings of Pada-lin Caves at the foot of Shan Ranges near Myittha. Ruins of oldest urban civilizations excavated are Vaisali of Rakhines, Suvanna-bhumi of Mons, and Beik-tha-no, Han-lin and Tha-re-khit-ta-yar of Pyu. They were dated back to 2nd century BC, and believed to be the city states. Anaw-rahta (1044~1077) was the first ruler who unified the country. During his reign, Theravada Buddhism was introduced by Shin Arahan. In spite of conflicts then and there after, cultures of Mon, Rakhine, Shan and Pyu have practically merged into present day Myanmar culture. To-day a union of 135 ethnic groups calls it home.